Modern societies for a long time have been used to advanced energy infrastructures and systems (such as the German ones) which delivered remarkable and high standards of reliability, operation and continuous energy supply with virtually no restrictions. However:

  • changes in the energy technologies (e.g. those happening and expected to happen due to the nuclear energy phase-out);
  • strong interdependencies with other stakeholders in European and international context; and
  • interaction with the surrounding other industrial infrastructure, surrounding society/communities/population and the environment;


  • a highly complex; and
  • an extremely dynamic overall energy system

that is susceptible to risks, as well as at the same time, generating new emerging risks (e.g. those resulting from the interaction between the natural hazards and man-made vulnerabilities in the energy infrastructure).

Therefore, these constantly increasing challenges require state-of-the-art management of the situation, not only in the short term, but in the medium and long terms as well.